1. Litt JS, Burke TA. (2002) Uncovering the historic environmental hazards of urban brownfields. J Urban Health. 2002 Dec; 79(4):464-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12468667
2. California Environmental Protection Agency (2013), California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool, Version 1 (CalEnviroScreen 1.0): Guidance and Screening Tool. http://oehha.ca.gov/ej/pdf/042313CalEnviroScreen1.pdf.
3. California Environmental Protection Agency (2014), Draft Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool: Version 2.0 (CalEnviroScreen 2.0). Information on Version 2. http://oehha.ca.gov/ej/ces2.html
Proximity to Brownfield Sites
The Proximity to Brownfield Sites indicator measures the share of a neighborhood population located in close proximity (500ft.) to a Brownfield. From an environmental hazards standpoint, Brownfields potentially have biological, physical, or chemical environmental dangers as a result of site contamination, groundwater impacts, surface runoff, migration of contaminants, or wastes dumped on site. According to the EPA, Brownfields may also have broader health impacts to the community, including safety issues ranging from abandoned or dilapidated buildings, compromised infrastructure and equipment, contamination from toxic substances, to social and economic factors such as reduced property values and tax base as a result of blight, crime, and vagrancy issues. Brownfields data is available from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Targeted Brownfields Assessment program and Alabama Department of Environmental Management Cleanup Voluntary Cleanup Program. Listed under the Environmental Hazards domain, this indicator is also linked to the Neighborhood Characteristics, Social Cohesion, Economic Health, and Health Systems and Public Safety domains. It is considered an “inverse” measure, i.e., the higher the share of the neighborhood located close to a Brownfield site, the higher the negative impact on the neighborhood.