1. Katz, Lawrence F. Testimony for the Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress. Long-Term Unemployment in the Great Recession, Hearing, April 29, 2010. Available at http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/lkatz/files/long_term_unemployment_in_t...
2. Sullivan, Daniel and Till von Wachter, 2009 (as cited in Katz, Lawrence F., 2010).
3. Milner, Allison, Andrew Page, Anthony D. LaMontagne. “Long-Term Unemployment and Suicide: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” (2012). PLoS ONE
Employment can have a positive effect on economic well-being and health. Thus, it follows that unemployment is often detrimental to economic and health outcomes. Short-term unemployment is not an uncommon occurrence in one’s career trajectory, but long bouts of unemployment, or chronic unemployment, can have a severe impact on health, especially mental health. Long-term unemployment increases distress, depression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, subjective well-being, and self-esteem. The Long-term Unemployment indicator is extracted from the U.S. Census, and measures the proportion of the working-age population (i.e., residents above age 16) who has been unemployed for more than 12 months. It also is considered an “inverse” measure, i.e., the higher the value the more negative the ranking. In addition to its connections to the Employment Opportunities domain, the Long-term Unemployment indicator also impacts the Economic Health, Neighborhood Characteristics, Educational Opportunities, and Housing domains.